In the laboratories for synthesis there are various apparatus, with the possibility of performing different methods of synthesis, preparation of pellets and film deposition.
In particular, there are two microwave ovens: one dedicated to synthesis in solution or in the solid state and the other, using the appropriate carousel, for mineralization and dissolution of samples (mainly for quantitative determination of elements).
Solutions and suspensions, as well as cleaning of the specimens, can be prepared through a bath sonicator and to a sonicator tip immersion exploiting the cavitation caused by ultrasonic waves in liquid media.
Solid state synthesis, mixtures, compounds, alloys, suspensions, etc., can be prepared by means of planetary ball milling. The kinetic energy of rotation of a number of ball that slides with high energy inside the jars is exploited: size, number and material of balls are chosen according to the hardness and the quantity of the substances used. For particular syntheses (solvothermal) or for heat treatment under pressure an autoclave is used which can operate up to 350 ° C and 200 bar even in corrosive atmospheres (container made of steel resistant to corrosion or Teflon).
Thanks to an uniaxial press, and to various molds which differ in shape and size, powders can be compacted to obtain pellets that can be thermally treated in high temperature furnaces for the consolidation or sintering.
In addition, the film deposition ca be performed via spin coating thanks to the dedicated tool: by rotating a sample, a solution or suspension is spread on its surface. The final coating depends on the speed of rotation, on the amount of substance onto the sample and the cycles performed. Another possibility is the spry deposition where a solution or suspension can be nebulized over a substrate by a nozzle that can operate with a gas flowing (generally nitrogen or argon). The use of a pantograph allow the precise deposition over also large size samples.
In the case of dangerous substances, or highly sensitive to the normal atmosphere, it is used a glove box that allows the manipulation in the sealed chamber in an inert atmosphere controlled and free of oxygen and moisture.
In addition, the equipment of laboratories also includes a centrifuge, two hoods to handle powders and solvents, a filter hood for acids and one for solvents.
- Microwave Rotosynth Milestone
- Microwave Ethos One Milestone
- Uniaxial press Mignon EA/SS Nannetti
- Sonicator bath CP104 EIA
- Sonicator tip Sonics VibraCell
- Glove Box UNIlab LMF MBraun
- Planetary mill Pulverisette Fritsch 6
- Planetary mill Pulverisette Fritsch 7
- SCS G3P-8 Spincoat Cookson Electronics
The available glove-boxes are systems which allow to operate under inert and controlled atmosphere (nitrogen); they are equipped with a freezer, a system to run reactions at low temperature or reflux, and a microscope to set crystals sensible to air.
Glove-boxex are used to handle products sensible to oxygen and humidity and to produce different kinds of chemicals reactants.
The fields of interest are catalysis, thin film deposition via the CVD and ALD techniques up to energetics.
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