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The definition of the authenticity of artworks has undergone a slow process of development: with time, connoisseurship — the traditional practice of attributing detailed artistic identities to works of art on the basis of a comparative analysis of stylistic and formal components — has lost its position of technical leadership. In fact, currently, trust in the expert eye is increasingly subjected to the “objective” outcomes ensured by new and more rigorous techniques of scientific analysis of materials. However, this approach risks being somewhat reductive and incomplete.
Peru has a significant number of constructions of high historical and cultural value distributed along the country. Among these archaeological remains of great significance, there are multiple ‘Huacas’, which are pyramidal earthen constructions often built for sacred or religious purposes. Some of the many existing huacas have been damaged due to exposure to severe natural and anthropogenic hazards.
The selection of the best preservation or intervention strategies of these archaeological earthen constructions is a very challenging process that is often hampered due to the difficulty to define in-situ conditions.
Art objects conservation or historical analysis necessitates a thorough knowledge of the materials used by the artist and during the subsequent changes, their chemical composition and determination of their preservation state. In the case of paintings this requires the ability to correctly identify the pigments that were used for creation or later restoration of the artwork. This is a challenging problem, as the applied method should be non-contact, robust for the wide variety of chemical substances used and straightforward in the interpretation. Recently, the hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a promising measuring methodology for this kind of the artwork analysis; the combination of acquiring spectral information and planar (photography-like) pixel arrangement provides a lot of potential for material characterization. While initial studies of hyperspectral imaging application to art objects analysis are encouraging, the difficulties of working with its multidimensional data are acknowledged; in many cases complex algorithms are required to fully utilize its potential.
Reversal film is a type of film that produces a positive image on a transparent celluloid base. Given its low processing cost, during the last four decades of the 20th century, reversal films have been very popular in many parts of the world, being used for both educational and recreative purposes. The Romanian Animafilm studios published throughout the decades an impressive collection of such films on various subjects, mostly animated stories, but also with historical or educational topics, and many of them are archived in many educational and cultural institutions. They are today a part of the 20th century legacy, in the same time containing images of sights, monuments, panoramas that can no longer be seen in the real world, and their reversal film images are sometimes the only thing preserving their heritage.
Cultural heritage buildings and artefacts made of natural stones are subjected to deterioration, due mainly to environmental (chemical, physical, biological) agents or anthropogenic pollutants. These lead to the degradation of the stone, compromising its aesthetic appearance but also its physical integrity. Many products have been developed and used to hinder the effects of decay agents or to restore the stone material.
An innovative and very promising strategy to prevent building materials from soiling and biofouling seems to be the use of TiO2 nanocoatings, because of their ability to photo-decompose pollutants under UV irradiation, their durability and affordable costs.
TiO2-based nanocoatings have been widely applied on many stone materials such as marbles, travertines, dolostones and limestones; however, the efficiency of these coatings in such applications is still debated.